語言的“一品鍋” The communal pot of languages

至今製作了差不多七十張土生土語學字卡,其實早就寫下了這篇文章但遲遲未有發表,看來時機到了,就讓我為大家介紹一下土生土語的大小事吧! 簡單來說,土生土語像“一品鍋”,把好的東西放進鍋子裡,烹調一下讓各種獨特的食材互相影響,品嚐者既能分辯各種用料的特色但又發現它有著獨一無二的味道,土生土語正正就是語言的“一品鍋”。

土生土語有數個名稱,包括maquistalíngu maquistapatuálíngu di Macaupapiaçámpapiâ Cristâm di Macaudóci lingu di Macau [1] 、澳門語、土生土語、土生葡語等等。葡萄牙航海隊伍約1498年抵達印度[2] ,其後陸逐抵達亞洲沿岸的不同地點,葡語亦成為貿易路線的通用語 (lingua franca) 。由於亞豐素雅布基 Afonso de Albuquerque極力推崇“落地生根”的殖民策略,再加上國皇禁止女性家眷隨行,於是異族通婚大行其道。於1511年,隊伍抵達馬六甲,由於馬來女性有著“從一而終”及全心全意為愛侶奉獻的特性,來自葡國的航海家及商人特別鍾情於與她們交往。據記載,於突襲及戰事中,全靠馬來女性的通風報信才及時讓不少葡人得以保命。[3]

異族通婚意味著兩種文化及語言共存同一屋簷下,自然需要溝通了,在此過程中衍生出一種當地語言混合葡語的歐亞土語 -克里斯坦語 (Papiá Kristang),它亦被稱為“馬六甲葡語” (Portugues di Melaka),也是被公認為土生土語的源頭。於1641年,荷蘭攻陷馬六甲,葡萄牙人及其家眷均被逐出,大部份人亦因而移居到當時局勢較為穩定的澳門。

剛提到葡萄牙航海隊伍、商人、傳教士等抵達不同地區,貿易路線除了涉及非洲地區外,也包括位於亞洲的印度、馬六甲、錫蘭 (今斯里蘭卡)、澳門及日本等地。這種移動性,造就了語言混雜的契機,加上各種戰爭、貿易、政策制度等原因,不少來自不同地區的歐亞家庭均移居到澳門,土生土語亦漸趨成形,更成為土生葡人族群中的主要日常語言。

土生土語包含了葡語、馬來語、坦米爾語、西班牙語、粵語、英語等等,它的結構和文法接近馬來語,但在當中亦不乏古老的葡語詞彙、然而它有很多發音又有別於葡語,以下有些有趣的例子讓大家一嚐此“一品鍋”的多元味道:

Nhonha (女士) : 源於馬來語的 Nyonya
Iou (我) : : 源於西班牙語的Yo
Bonitéza (美麗的):源於葡語的Bonita
Chau-chau Lau-lau:源於粵語的‘吵吵鬧鬧’
Chapông-chipông (粵劇):源於粵劇裡類同“喳篤撐”的聲譯

土生土語經過了不同的演變階段,由當年較接近Kristang,到20世紀初澎漲的獨特性和定形,延至五、六十年代的急劇末落,到現在受著土生土語話劇與時並進的演化,土生土語可以說是不斷銳變。於2009年,聯合國教科文組織將土生土語列為”瀕危語言”,更統計全球能操流利土生土語的人不足50位[4]。一個屬於澳門的語言為何會由興盛轉趨末落?且聽下回分解。

參考資料:
[1] Senna Fernandes, Miguel de and Alan Baxter. (2004). Maquista Chapado: vocabulary and expressions in Macao’s Portuguese Creole. Macau: Cultural Institution of Macau.

[2] Crowley, Roger. (2015). Conquerors: How Portugal Forged the First Global Empire. Radom House, USA. 

[3] Amaro, A. (1995).  The illusive Macanese women. Review of Culture, no. 24 (2nd ser.): 7-14.

[4] UNESCO’s Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger (2009)

To English Readers:
If you are interested in knowing more about Patuá, you may want to check out my other article that offers an in depth version of related information: https://unravellingmag.com/articles/patua-the-sunset-creole/

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Chomâ 呼喚 Call

069 chomâ 2.jpg記得小時候遇到鄰居時,還未趕得及開口長輩已會立即說句 –「叫人啦!」如不主動打招呼,會被說「冇家教」,小時已懂得被這樣說會感到羞愧。不知自何時起連成年人都不懂得叫人了,莫說是遇到鄰居,就算是畢業生上班也不會叫人。今天和大家說的土生土語字與「叫人」有關,就是動詞chomâ,意指「呼喚/叫」,也指「被稱為」,即用於自我介紹中的句子如「我叫陳大文」。下列為此字的例句:

Acunga mufino já vêm subiá chomâ vôs.
那個麻煩人又來吹口哨叫你了。

Gente-gente chomâ êle Calito-T’âu-Kai.
人人都叫他做Calito-偷雞*。

Tótó batê mám, chomâ tudo atencám uví.
多多拍了手,呼喚各人的注意力。

在土生葡人社群當中,很多人都有花名,創意也可說是無限的。不少人以花名為社群所認識,反而說真名時他人會想不起是誰呢。

Macanese usually have quite long names, with two or three words for first name and two or more words for last names. We would sometimes be asked what we’d like to be called, so let’s talk about the Patuá verb — chomâ, meaning “to call" or “to be called". Here are some examples:

Acunga mufino já vêm subiá chomâ vôs. 
That troublemaker came and called you by whistling.

Gente-gente chomâ êle Calito-T’âu-Kai.
Everyone calls him Calito-chicken thief*.

Tótó batê mám, chomâ tudo atencám uví.
Tótó clapped his hands, calling everyone’s attention to listen to him.

 Macanese of the older generations have peculiar nicknames, most of them come from great creativity and imagination.  Many Macanese are even more known by their nicknames than their real names!

土生的母語是甚麼?Macanese’s Mother Tongue

近日牽起了一陣探討母語的熱潮,不少土生朋友在 Facebook頭像中作出重申,但卻引來了各種有趣的回響。不少人問:「你的母語怎麼會是粵語?應該是葡語才對啊。」其實母語是甚麼只有當事人最清楚,旁人均未能定奪的,不過這讓我想作出卑微的分享。

首先, 早前在「土生非葡人」(1) 一文中分享過,土生的定義有其複雜性。主要原因是土生這個民族身份未有廣泛的標準。有些土生父母某方具葡萄牙人血統,另一方可能是印度人、馬來人、果亞人、華人等血統;有些可能雙方均為華人;有些雙方均為果亞人。有些父母雙方均為華人,沒有葡裔血統。 但澳門土生的根本原則,就是以澳門為家、為根。血統的多元化源於歷史過程中,葡人去了不同的地點落地生根,再因各地動盪驅使這些前人來到較為穩定的澳門居住。這些混血兒帶著他們的葡亞混合語來澳,經多年多代後形成了澳門獨有的土生土語,而這種語言成為了土生社群的主要語言。

直至上世紀初,澳葡政府大力推行「正規」葡語教學,並禁止學校內說土語。這開展了土生土語的末落。現實生活問題也是末落的催化劑,如果要有更好的謀生門路,學懂「正規」葡語是必需的。如果說土生土語,葡語的發音和文法會受到一定的影響;加上當年人們對方言和混合語的獨特性很無知,沒甚重視,因此葡人是「看不起」土語的,視之為「爛葡語」,也將說土生土語的人視為「沒知識、沒文化的低下階層」。很多家庭為了子女將來能追求更好的生活,擺脫歧視,便要他們學好葡語,因此也不主張他們在家中說土語。另外,一些如123事件、康乃馨革命、香港電視廣播和土生華人通婚率增加等等的影響,粵語亦成為了很多土生家庭必說的語言。有趣的是土生社群亦有其獨特的粵語,有興趣的人可找找吳偉雄先生所著的「澳門土生粵語語音特點及其變異原因」來看看。

母語是葡語還是粵語,很視乎該土生家庭結構和背景。比如母為土生父為葡人,那麼他們的母語很可能是葡語。但有些家庭可能父或母為華人,那麼粵語又很可能是他們的母語。更有些從少受著英語教育的土生,會以英語為其母語。根據網上引述布龍菲爾德的說法,母語「為一個人出生以後,最早接觸、學習、並掌握的一種或幾種語言。母語一般是自幼即開始接觸、並持續運用到青少年或之後;並且,一個人所受的家庭或正式教育中,尤其是早期,有相當部分是通過母語傳授的。一個人同時可以擁有多種母語,並且可以使用雙語或多種語言。相較之下,第二語言是任何一種語言,不是一個人的第一語言。」。所以很難一概而論哪個語言是土生的母語,也不會因為國籍而去定一個人的母語是哪一個的。有些土生可告訴你哪一個是母語,但由於有些土生從少家中以多語構通,因此要作出一種母語的選擇會有一定的困難。

無論母語是哪一個也好,最終取決於當事人,因為只有他/她才會知道,容不得他人來為其決定。

Macanese’s Mother Tongue

There is a recent fervor about mother tongue, many Macanese declared via Facebook what their mother tongue was.  This trend has raised interesting thoughts, I have seen recurring comments such as “How can Cantonese be your mother tongue? Shouldn’t it be Portuguese?”  The mother tongue of a person can only be determined by the person himself/herself, and this recurring query made me want to share the little that I know.

In an earlier sharing “Macanese is Macanese”(1), the complexity of defining the Macanese lies on the notion of not having a single, agreed upon definition. Some Macanese may have one of their parents with Portuguese heredity, while the other may be Indian, Malay, Goan, Chinese, etc.  Another example would be Macanese who have pure Chinese heredity.  Some have pure Goan heredity but regards Macau as their home and root.   But the basic “rule” would be that a Macanese would regard Macau as their “home”, seeks the Macanese style of living and have a sense of cultural identity. The richness of Macanese culture and race is a result of Portuguese laying down roots at various exploration destination.  Historical incidents at those places have led to creole descendants to settle themselves in Macau, a comparatively tranquil place. These creole descendants brought along their Portuguese creole language to Macau, and after years of integrating with local community, Macau gained it’s unique creole dialect – Patuá, which was once used as daily conversational language within the community.

In the early decades of the previous century, the Portuguese administration have implemented various measures to promote “standard Portuguese”, one of them involved the forbidding of creole language use in schools, which led to the decline of Patuá.  The Macanese believed that Patuá would give a negative influence to pronuncation and grammatical use of “standard Portuguese”.  Due to the lack of knowledge on the importance of dialect and creole language, attention was not paid to its preservation.  The Patuá language was regarded as “broken Portuguese”, and those that spoke it would be seen as less educated  and of a lower hierarchical status.   Survival strategies acted as a catalyst for the decline of Patuá.  Many Macanese parents would encourage their children to speak Portuguese instead of Patuá, in hope they could get rid of social degradation, and have a better future or attain a higher rank in the administrative sector.   Other social influences, such as the 123 incident, Carnation Revolution, Hong Kong Television broadcast and the increased intermarriages between Macanese and Chinese community, all gave rise to the increase of Cantonese use among the Macanese community.

Whether Portuguese or Cantonese is the mother tongue of a Macanese depend on their familial and cultural background. For instance if the father of a Macanese is Portuguese, and the mother is Macanese, they might have Portuguese as their mother tongue.  If one of their parents is Chinese, they might have Cantonese as their mother tongue. Some Macanese who went to English schools have English as their mother tongue.  According to a discussion in the internet in regard to Leonard Bloomfield’s notion of mother tongue, “ A first language, native language or mother/father tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth. A mother tongue is the language that one uses till their adolescence. One can have one or more languages as their mother tongue.”  Therefore, it is difficult to determine the one mother tongue of a Macanese community as it depends on the individual’s cultural background and upbringing.  Some Macanese even have difficulty in choosing one particular mother tongue as they have been brought up in a multilingual environment.

No matter which mother tongue one declares, the ultimate decision belongs to the person in question because only he/she knows better, no one else can decide for them.


(1) “土生非葡人 Macanese is Macanese” https://belamaquista.wordpress.com/2016/05/11/%E5%9C%9F%E7%94%9F%E9%9D%9E%E8%91%A1%E4%BA%BA/

 

Unga istória di Dóci Papiaçám di Macau

Iou querê escrevê na língu maquista, mas vôs já sabe.. Iou sâm jóvi, nôm sabe torâ português, nôm sabe labitâ Patuá bem feito.. iou mêdo genti-genti pódi chuchumecâ qui iou sâm rafêro, sabe unchinho lôgo ficâ sabechona, ‘expert’… lôgo senti qui iou ta papiâ boboriça..  Mas se nunca papiâ, se nunca escrevê, como pódi aprendê? Más bôm papiâ boboriça qui dessâ nôssa dóci língu morrê, sâm nunca?

Vôsotro uví, istunga ano sâm ano especial pá nôs-sa Dóci Papiaçám di Macau. Êle já fichâ 25 ano!

Vôsotro sossegâ, dessâ iou contâ pa vôs.  Macau sã terá galánte, têm língu maquista qui sâm ui di dóci cô laia-laia di chiste. 25 ano fora, unga chonto di maquista já juntâ ráncho, falâ qui nôs-sa papiaçám tem chiste, nôs-sa récita maquista tud’ora fazê genti tudo rî cacáda. Na 1993, êle fazê unga récita ‘Olâ Pisidenti’ na Teatro Dom Pedro V.  Vôs sabe cuza sâm Teatro Dom Pedro V nunca? 150 ano fora, maquista-maquista junta sapeca pa fazê unga teatro, acunga teatro sâm ui di famoso, sâm primeiro teatro ocidental na téra China! Qui capaz!  Têm sala di billar cô sala pa dançâ.  Na Macau antigo, têm récita na vánda di Teatro na tempo di Carnaval!

anos 60 recita-e-lingu-maquista-teatro-patua-03

Foto: Récita di Patuá na anos 60 (Revista Macau, 1994)

Ai, más bom fala di Macau di tempo moderno.  Maquista sâm genti qui querê vai divertí, cô unchinho di malínguâ, unchinho di inventaçám.   Cavâ acunga récite na 1993, Dóci Papiaçám di Macau já nascê!   Dóci Papiaçám di Macau diverâ têm su chiste. Têm estória di tiro grándi, têm pa chuchumecâ, têm boboriça, têm laia-laia di estória pa contâ. Mas vôs sabe, manutençám dunga grupo di maquista-maquista nôm sâm facíl!!  Mas istunga grupo têm genti capaz co grándi amor pá nôssa Macau, trabaiâ tanto na escuridâm, nádi sabe.  Unga teatro têm escritor, têm diretor, tamém têm unga cúli corrê vai corrê vêm pa genti entrâ. Vôs sabi quim sâm êle? Sâm unga filo di Macau, sabi nunca? Sâm acunga Miguel de Senna Fernandes que já têm na Dóci Papiaçám di Macau 25 ano-fora!

MSF

Foto: Récita di Liçám Pa Agapito (1996)

Na acunga grupo, tamém têm laia-laia de filo fila di Macau.  Cavâ trabalo vai rufâ di bem, cavâ lôgo ta vai ensaio.  Na ensaio, têm trabalo, mas tamém têm quanto-cento di chuchumecâ. Vôs já sabe, úndi têm maquista, têm pa chuchumecâ. Sâm unga fámila chistosa!  Teatro tamém tem vídeo, quim já tem na vídeo sabe istunga ‘Perfect! Mais Um!’, sâm palavra di… nôm sâm palavar di Dios, sâm di Sergio Perez.   Teatro cô vídeo, sâm unga Dóci di tempo moderno.

Récita maquista fazê genti lembrá di Macau antigo, tamém di nôssa cultura, fazê sinti Macau na nôs-sa coraçám.  Nôs-sa língu sâm língu di amor pa Macau.  Iou lembrâ qui na 2000, iou-sa mámi levâ iou pa unga récita di Dóci Papiaçám di Macau, êle falâ qui maquista-maquista têm qui sabe nôssa papiaçám.  Por isso, quelóra vôs têm quiança, têm qui cartâ êle pa acunga teatro úvi nôsso língu Maquista!  Récita di Dóci Papiáçam sâm cádunga más janóta qui ôtrunga, fazê tudo ri cacáda.  Istunga ano, récita já têm na 19 cô 20 di Maio, vôs más bôm ficâ cô ôlo di gaviám pa sabe quelóra tem bilhete pa comprâ!

Sã assí-ia! Iou bafo-cumprido qui nôm pódi mas.. si iou-sa patuá sâm boboriça, sâm rafêro, vôs ne bom rêva cô iou… Solly Solly-ia…

 

Buscâ 找 search

067 buscâ「人生可以很快樂,何必buscâ sarna pa cuçâ呢?」這句用上了一句通用的土生土語俚語 “buscâ sarna pa cuçâ”,等同於「捉蟲」或「有自唔在攞苦嚟辛」。今天教的,就是這句之中的動詞 “buscâ”,意指“尋找”或“拿取”。

例句:
Chico-chai tâ buscâ êle-sa oclo.
Chico-chai正在尋找他的眼鏡。

Quim vôs tâ buscâ?
你在找誰?

Êle tudo-óra tâ buscâ sarna pa cuçâ.
他常常自找麻煩。

“One can live life happily , why do you always buscâ sarna pa cuçâ?” A common Patuá slang “buscâ sarna pa cuçâ” was used in this sentence, it means “to ask for trouble”.  Today, we will be talking about the verb “buscâ”, meaning to search or to get.

Example:
Chico-chai tâ buscâ êle-sa oclo.
Chico-chai is searching for his pair of glasses.

Quim vôs tâ buscâ?
Who are you looking for?

Êle tudo-óra tâ buscâ sarna pa cuçâ.
He is always asking for trouble.

Qui-foi 為甚麼 why

066 qui-foi.jpg

尋根問底才能知道眞相、了解更多。學生問老師,是好學表現非故意挑戰。市民發問,理由也如是。 今天分享的土生土語是 Qui-foi,即為甚麼。

例句:
Qui-foi êle tudo-óra tâ chuchumecâ?
為甚麼他由朝到晚都在說人閒話?

Qui -foi êle nunca vêm Macau juntado co vôs?
為甚麼他從來不與妳來澳相聚?

Qui -foi vôs nunca cunfissá?
為甚麼妳從不告解?

Asking questions is the way to search for truth, to understand more. Students asking why, is not a gesture of disrespect but a way of learning more.  The same goes to the public that raises questions. As such, let’s learn the word for why in Patuá, which is Qui-foi.

Examples:
Qui-foi êle tudo-óra tâ chuchumecâ?
Why is he gossiping all the time?

Qui -foi êle nunca vêm Macau juntado co vôs?
Why doesn’t he ever come join you in Macau?

Qui -foi vôs nunca cunfissá?
Why do you never confess?

 

Quelê-môdo 怎樣 How

065 quelemodo.jpg

繼續說說疑問詞句,今次說Quelê-môdo這詞,既可用作疑問詞,也可作為副詞,有點像“怎樣”的用法。疑問詞時,都會用作詢問過程,相等於“如何?”和“怎樣?”。副詞則是“無論如何”的意思,表示不管條件怎樣,結果都是一樣的。 例句如下:

Vôs quelê-môdo assí janotâ?
你如何這樣時髦呀?

Quelê-môdo Macau tamêm sâm assí-ia.
無論怎樣澳門都是這樣的。

Quelê-môdo avô nádi vêlo?
公公怎樣會不老的呀?

Today’s interrogative phrase is Quelê-môdo , it can be used as interrogative phrase similar to “how" or “in what way".  It can also be used as an adverb, similar to “anyhow" or “no matter what".

Examples:
Vôs quelê-môdo assí janotâ?
How can you be this chic?

Quelê-môdo Macau tamêm sâm assí-ia. 
Macau is the same no matter what.

Quelê-môdo avô nádi vêlo?
How come grandfather doesn’t grow old.

 

Qualunga 哪個 which

064 Qualunga做人要走哪條路或以哪種原則堅守行為,都是一種選擇,而這選擇決定了您是哪種人。人生走到不同的階段,就會出現這類問題,選擇哪個好呢?今天就和大家說說土生土語疑問代詞 -Qualunga,此詞相等與「哪一個」。

例句:
Vôs têm na qualunga canto sentado?
你坐在哪個角落呢?

Qualunga Natal avô já isquecê dâ pisente pa vôs?
哪個聖誕節公公忘記過給禮物你呢?

Qualunga bolo bate-pau sâm pa iou?
哪一件月餅是給我的?

As we grow up, we choose which way to go or which principles to follow.  With these choices, we determine what kind of a person we want to be.  Today’s Patuá word is Qualunga, an interrogative pronoun equivalent to the english word “which".

Examples:
Vôs têm na qualunga canto sentado?
Which corner are you sitting at?

Qualunga Natal avô já isquecê dâ pisente pa vôs?
Which Christmas have grandpa ever forgotten to give you a present?

Qualunga bolo bate-pau sâm pa iou?
Which moon cake is for me?

 

Quim 誰 who

063 Quim

誰勝誰負?誰是誰非?今天就和大家說說土生土語疑問詞 — Quim,這字與「誰」的意思相若。 而在過往的土生土語卡也分享過,土生最喜歡問別人Filo di quim? 即「誰家的孩子?」。 這問題就像查家宅,用以了解對方和哪一家有聯繫,算是小村文化的可愛。 下列為此字的例句:

Azinha vai abrí porta, olâ sã quim!
快點去開門,看看是誰!

Filo di quim?
誰家的孩子?

Uví, si nunca sã iou, sã quim?
聽著,如果不是我,是誰呢?

Who won, who lost? Who’s the right one, and who’s not? Today let’s talk about a Patuá interrogative word — Quim. Quim is equivalent to “who”, and as I mentioned previously, it’s customary for Macanese to ask another with the question “Filo di quim?”  This question is used to establish knowledge in relation to kinship, a sweet custom commonly found in neighbourhoods.

Examples:
Azinha vai abrí porta, olâ sã quim!
Go open the door immediately to see who it is!

Filo di quim?
Whose son are you?

Uví, si nunca sã iou, sã quim?
Listen, if it wasn’t me, who was it?